Conferences

We invite you to explore our talks and posters. Here you can find abstracts of our latest conference papers

Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland

April, 2018

Zajenkowski, M. (2018). Why do angry people overestimate their intelligence? Evidence for the differential roles of narcissism and neuroticism. International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

Trait-Anger and Neuroticism are substantially inter-correlated positively. However, there is some theoretical and empirical research that supports the notion that Trait-Anger and Neuroticism are influenced by several processes differentially. For instance, Trait-Anger is linked to optimistic bias, increased sense of control, approach motivation and high Grandiose Narcissism. In contrast, Neuroticism correlates with pessimism, low sense of control, withdrawal motivation and low Narcissism. Building on these previous findings, it was hypothesized that Trait-Anger and Neuroticism would be positively and negatively, respectively, associated with subjectively assessed intelligence (SAI). Furthermore, it was expected that these two traits would act as mutual suppressors in predicting SAI. The results of two studies (ns = 303 and 225) supported these hypotheses. Trait-Anger was positively and Neuroticism negatively related to SAI, even after controlling for objective intelligence. Additionally, in study 2, it was found that Narcissism mediated the relationship between Trait-Anger and SAI. Thus, it is possible that there might be two faces of Trait-Anger: neurotic (related to anxiety) and narcissistic (related to overconfidence).

Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Zajenkowska, A., Bodecka, M., Skrzypek, M. (2018). Relationship between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and type of committed crime in the population of Polish prisoners.  International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

It is observed that the level of return to crime in Poland is slightly increasing and in the period 2009–2014 its rate was about 26%. In connection with this fact, exploring factors associated with the probability of offense is very important. The conducted study focused on personality traits and its aim was to analyze potential relationships between two types of narcissisms (grandiose and vulnerable) and committed crime (robberies, murder/attempted murder, fraud). The data were collected among prisoners (n = 109, 12 men). Vulnerable narcissism was measured with Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale in the Polish adaptation. Grandiose narcissism was measured with NPI in the Polish adaptation.The results show that vulnerable narcissism is a factor, which differentiates robber group of prisoners and prisoners convicted of a fraud. The current study sheds more light on the relationships between narcissisms and aggressive behavior. Moreover, these findings may be important for creating therapeutic tools and programs in the penitentiaries.

Maciantowicz, O. (2018). Neurotic anger in narcissism: role of neuroticism in narcissism – anger relationship.  International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

Narcissism, because of it’s core characteristics like disregard for others and elevated sense of entitlement, is, connected with anger outcomes. In this study we aimed to examine how lower level personality traits (Big Five) will take part in further examining of narcissism – anger relation. In the current study, we examined the relationship between two types of narcissism (grandiose and vulnerable), neuroticism, and various aspects of dispositional anger in four independent samples (ns = 121–233). Based on prior research and the narcissistic rage concept, we hypothesized that the magnitudes of correlations between vulnerable narcissism and anger will be higher than between grandiose narcissism and anger. The obtained results confirmed this expectation. Furthermore, we examined the role of neuroticism in explaining vulnerable narcissism’s association with anger. We found that neuroticism accounts for the latter relation to a high degree. The findings are discussed with reference to recent data and suggest that vulnerable narcissism might be reducible to basic personality traits, mostly neuroticism.

Szymaniak, K. (2018). Narcissism and satisfaction with life: mediating role of neuroticism and extraversion.  International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

Recent studies show that there might be two types of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The former correlates with more adaptive psychological profile and high well-being, whereas the latter is associated with maladaptive functioning including negative emotionality. In the current study we examined the relationships between two types of narcissism and satisfaction with life. Additionally, we controlled for Big Five personality traits, because they were shown to be relevant for both narcissism and well-being. A total of 233 subjects took part in the study with a range of age 18–39. Vulnerable narcissism was measured with the Polish version of the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale and grandiose narcissism was assessed with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Big Five was assessed with the Polish adaptation of International Personality Items Pool Big Five Factor Markers – 50. Satisfaction with life was measured with Satisfaction with Life Scale. We found that only one type of narcissism was significantly correlated with satisfaction with life. Specifically, vulnerable narcissism was negatively associated with life satisfaction, whereas grandiose type did not correlate significantly with it. The mediation analysis revealed that neuroticism and extraversion fully mediated the relationship between vulnerable narcissism and life satisfaction. The obtained results suggest that personality traits explain the level of happiness declared by vulnerable narcissists. This finding is consistent with recent data showing that vulnerable narcissism is highly correlated with personality traits, especially neuroticism.

Szymaniak, K., Maciantowicz, O. (2018). Vulnerable and grandiose narcissism differently associated with ability and trait emotional intelligence (poster).  International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

An increasing body of evidence suggests that narcissism is not an unitary construct and that there might be two variants of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable. Both of them share some basic phenomena, such as the sense of entitlement, disregard of others, and self enhancement. The latter one encompasses narcissists` motives and self-directed effort to increase the positivity of their self-concept or public image. Our goal was to examine the association between the two types of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) understood as both an ability and a trait. Grandiose narcissism is characterized by high self-esteem, interpersonal dominance and a tendency to overestimate one`s capabilities whereas vulnerable narcissism presents defensive, avoidant and hypersensitive attitude in interpersonal relations. In the current study (n = 249) we found that vulnerable narcissism was significantly and negatively associated with trait EI, however it did not correlate with ability EI. Grandiose narcissism was significantly positively connected with trait EI. Moreover, when the two EI scores were analyzed together in one model, they predicted grandiose narcissism in opposite directions. Specifically, trait EI showed a positive relation with grandiose narcissism, while ability EI negatively predicted this type of narcissism. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high level of grandiose narcissism tend to overestimate their abilities. Vulnerable narcissism is probably connected with more realistic self-perception of emotional abilities.

Łowicki, P., Maciantowicz, O., Witowska J., Zajenkowski, M. (2018). The role of narcissism in the relationship between time perspective and religiosity (poster).  International conference – Between Narcissism and Entitlement: Self-enhancement in a cross-cultural perspective, Warsaw, Poland.

Two types of narcissism – vulnerable and grandiose – share some common core like the sense of entitlement and disregard of others. Apart from some shared characteristics, in recent studies those two constructs have been differentiated by some correlates, like different time perspective profiles and religious orientation. Up to date, though, the two types of narcissism, time perspective and religiosity have not been investigated and analyzed together. We aimed to explore this field and to further examine the type of identified relationships. The current study (N=162) was conducted using grandiose and vulnerable narcissism scales (NPI and HSNS), time perspective inventory (ZTPI) and religious orientation scale (ROS). The sample consisted of Polish young adults (age range: 18-37) with Roman Catholicism as a dominant religious denomination (73%). Only vulnerable narcissism was significantly connected with religiosity – positive connections with extrinsic religious orientation and its social subscale were found. On the top of that, both vulnerable narcissism and extrinsic religious orientation were connected with present fatalistic time perspective. Further analysis led to conclusion that the relationship between present fatalistic time perspective and extrinsic religious orientation is fully mediated by vulnerable narcissism variable. Our results indicate that higher concentration on present fatalism coexisting with higher levels of vulnerable narcissism may facilitate external and instrumental attitude towards religion.

The International Association for the Psychology of Religion Conference, Hamar, Norway

Witowska, J. (2017). The relationships between religious beliefs and time perspective: Time among Buddhists and Catholics in Poland and Germany. The International Association for the Psychology of Religion Conference, Hamar, Norway.

The aim of this presentation will be to describe the results of the investigation concerning time perspective (TP) and religious beliefs. Time perspective is characterised as a tendency to automatically partition personal experiences into the time frames and to concentrate on the past, present or future. Various findings indicate that TP has significant cognitive, affective and motivational consequences in sociopsychological functioning. However, up to date TP has been poorly investigated in regard to religion. Therefore, we decided to address this issue in two studies. In the first study, we found that general level of declared religious belief, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation (RO) were related to different dimensions of TP. Additional analysis showed that religious beliefs significant predict only Past Positive TP. In the second study, we compared time perspective profiles of Polish and German Buddhists and Roman Catholics. Results showed that there are significant differences between these religious groups. Catholics were more concentrated on past and future, whereas Buddhists were more occupied with present. It is worth noting that the current research provides a new insight into the understanding of religion, and it opens a field for further investigation.

Łowicki, P. (2017). Minds and Gods Revised? The Role of Gender Differences in Mind-reading ability for Predicting Religious Belief. The International Association for the Psychology of Religion Conference, Hamar, Norway.

Recent area of investigation into the cognitive foundation of religious belief has emphasized the role of mind-reading ability. However, the empirical data in this context are rather equivocal. For instance, Vonk and Pitzen (in press, Personality and Individual Differences) discovered that accurate mind-reading does not predict religiosity at all. In the current research we intended to verify the existence of the relationship between mind-reading and religiosity using the Reading the Mind in Eyes Test (RMET) and Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS). The results of the study conducted among Polish university students (N=313) revealed that, on the general level, mind-reading ability was not related to any dimension of religiosity. However, when data were reanalyzed broken down by gender, it was found that for men RMET score was significantly and positively correlated with the belief in God (CRS subscale). Moreover, further analysis demonstrated that this relationship is curvilinear in shape, suggesting that males may have to exceed certain threshold of mind-reading abilities in order to be able to develop an intuitive belief in supernatural beings. The paper discusses the observed results pointing to its potential importance for the field of cognitive psychology of religion.

Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences,

July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland

Kobylińska, D., Zajenkowski, M. (2017) The influence of instructed reappraisal and suppression on emotional state in people with different personality traits. ISSID 2017 – The International Society For the Study of Individual Differences, Warsaw, Poland.

We wanted to check how Big Five personality traits are related to emotion regulation. In our experiment (N=150), reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies were activated by written instructions. Participants watched a movie clip inducing anger. Personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were measured. We tested if emotion regulation strategies influenced the change in the subjective experience of emotions (self-description) and if this influence was mediated by personality traits. The results confirm some of our hypotheses showing how people with different levels of traits react to anger induction as well as activation of reappraisal and suppression.

Zajenkowski, M. Uncovering the complex associations between intelligence and negative emotionality: A case study of trait anger. ISSID 2017 – The International Society For the Study of Individual Differences, Warsaw, Poland.

In several studies trait anger has been found to be weakly and negatively correlated with intelligence. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Recent data show, that trait anger is a much more complex construct then it was previously assumed, and because of that its relation with cognitive functioning may depend on various factors. It has been shown, for instance, that anger differs from other negatively valenced emotions. Specifically, in contrast to fear or sadness, anger (state and trait) was found to correlate with high levels of approach motivation, arousal and even some aspects of positive affect. These findings prompt the question of how trait anger and cognitive ability are related when various perspectives are taken. I show results from a series of studies examining the anger-ability relation at the conceptual, measurement and processual level. Considering the complex nature of anger several interesting, and sometimes surprising, findings has been discovered. For instance, in some situations, individuals with high dispositional anger showed a high level of energetic arousal which in turn increased their mental speed and selective attention, and prevented cognitive fatigue while taking an intelligence test. Moreover, trait anger was associated with an optimistic bias (overestimation) in the subjective assessment of intelligence. These results suggest that negative emotionality is not a unitary phenomenon and that the link between ability and specific personality traits should be analyzed from various perspectives which may lead to better understanding of this relationship.

Witowska J., Zajenkowski, M. (2017). The role of time perspective in cognitive functioning (poster). ISSID 2017 – The International Society For the Study of Individual Differences, Warsaw, Poland.

The results of studies examining the relationship between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories) and cognitive ability will be presented. According to the time perspective theory, there are five time perspectives: past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. In our studies cognitive abilities refers to cognitive control and fluid intelligence. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Cognitive control was assessed with tasks that require deliberate inhibition of automatic responses (antisaccade and go/no go) and fluid intelligence was measured with standard tests (Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test and Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices).

The results indicated that present fatalism (PF) was negatively associated with both cognitive control and intelligence, whereas past negative (PN) negatively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, we conducted two regression analyses, which showed that the negative association between PF and cognitive control was partly due to their shared variance with fluid intelligence. The follow-up studies shed some light on the nature of the inverse relationships between PF and PN and cognitive functioning. The first one showed that subjectively assessed intelligence partially mediated the relationship between PF and intelligence meaning that fatalists hold a negative belief about their abilities which undermines their performance. In the second study, we found that different stress states mediate the relation between cognitive performance and both time perspectives (PF and PN). The obtained results suggest that time perspectives may play a significant role in individual’s cognitive functioning.

Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M. (2017). Cognitive resources, trait anger and emotional states in grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (poster). Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland

In reference to the latest research on cognitive regulation of anger and hostility, the studies presented demonstrate the specificity of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism by exploring its relationships with human cognitive resources (fluid intelligence and cognitive control), emotional state, and trait anger.

Our studies (Study 1: N = 280; Study 2: N = 154) demonstrated that vulnerable narcissism is connected with lower performance in Cattell’s Fluid Intelligence Test and a cognitive control task and a higher level of trait anger. Grandiose narcissism showed moderate positive correlation with trait anger but no statistically significant effects were found with performance in the Fluid Intelligence Test or a cognitive control task. Studies explain vulnerable narcissism’s connections with lower cognitive performance by trait anger and emotional states experienced by individuals during procedure.

These findings add to a differentiation of two types of narcissistic traits in the matter of cognitive and emotional functioning. Presented investigation shows that vulnerable narcissism’s difficulties in cognitive tasks can be caused by emotional states and other coexisting personality traits. There is a possibility that vulnerable narcissism can be connected with such preoccupation with an individual’s negative emotionality that it results in lower cognitive capacities in daily life.

Łowicki, P., Zajenkowski, M., Chuderski, A., Jastrzębski, J. (2017). Follow your heart, not your head. The interplay between intelligence, empathy, religiosity and subjectively-assessed intelligence (poster). Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland

Psychological research has established a robust negative connection between religiosity and intelligence. However, to date the role of subjectively assessed intelligence (SAI) in relation to religious belief has not been examined. Therefore we decided to investigate this problem in a cross-sectional study among Polish adults (N = 318). Informed by the recent body of evidence pointing to the inverse influence of analytic versus social cognition on religious belief, we hypothesized that religious believers may consider high cognitive skills as something undesired. The results of the study proved that general religious belief and religious fundamentalism were negatively correlated with both psychometric intelligence and SAI. Moreover, we found that the relationship between religiosity and SAI was thoroughly mediated by intelligence and empathy, suggesting the existence of two independent paths leading believers to inferior cognitive self-evaluations.

Maciantowicz, O., Skrzypek, M., Bodecka, M. (2017). Narcissism imprisoned: trait anger, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism among Polish prisoners (poster). Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland

The most prevalent model of self-control is the strength model, according to which self-control is based on a common, limited resource and each act of control consumes this resource, leaving the individual in a state of ego depletion. Recently, the strength model was criticized and other explanations of self-control have been proposed. One of them is a concept of lay willpower theories—that is, believing that willpower is limited (as in the strength model) or unlimited. Research shows that holding unlimited-resource beliefs prevents individuals from ego depletion and is related to successful self-regulation. The current study explored how personality and intelligence predicts willpower theories. On the basis of previous studies and theoretical considerations, the relationship between self-control and the Five Factor Model of Personality, time perspective, narcissism, and intelligence was examined. The study involved 284 participants.

Results showed that higher emotional stability, intellect/imagination, conscientiousness, and future time perspective were associated with believing in unlimited-resource theory. On the other hand, higher past negative and present fatalism time perspectives and vulnerable narcissism were related to limited-resource theory. The extent of personality basis of the willpower theories, and whether their influence on self-regulation can be assigned to individual differences, are discussed.

Szymaniak, K., Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M., Urban, P. (2017). Vulnerable and grandiose narcissism  are differentially associated with ability and trait emotional intelligence (poster). Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland.

We examined the association between two types of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) understood as both an ability and a self-assessed trait. Grandiose narcissism is characterized by high self-esteem, interpersonal dominance, and a tendency to overestimate one’s capabilities, whereas vulnerable narcissism presents defensive, avoidant, and hypersensitive attitudes in interpersonal relations. We found that vulnerable narcissism was significantly and negatively associated with trait EI; however, it did not correlate with ability EI. Grandiose narcissism, on the other hand, was significantly positively connected with trait EI. Moreover, when the two EI scores were analyzed together in one model, they predicted grandiose narcissism in opposite directions. Specifically, trait EI showed a positive relation with grandiose narcissism, while ability EI negatively predicted this type of narcissism. The latter results are consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high levels of grandiose narcissism tend to overestimate their abilities. Vulnerable narcissism is probably connected with more realistic self-perception and shows the risk of possible understatement.

Jędrzejczyk, J., Zajenkowski, M. (2017). Who believes in unlimited willpower? Personality traits and intelligence as predictors of beliefs about willpower (poster). Conference of International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 24-28, Warsaw, Poland

The most prevalent model of self-control is the strength model, according to which self-control is based on a common, limited resource and each act of control consumes this resource, leaving the individual in a state of ego depletion. Recently, the strength model was criticized and other explanations of self-control have been proposed. One of them is a concept of lay willpower theories—that is, believing that willpower is limited (as in the strength model) or unlimited. Research shows that holding unlimited-resource beliefs prevents individuals from ego depletion and is related to successful self-regulation. The current study explored how personality and intelligence predicts willpower theories. On the basis of previous studies and theoretical considerations, the relationship between self-control and the Five Factor Model of Personality, time perspective, narcissism, and intelligence was examined. The study involved 284 participants.

Results showed that higher emotional stability, intellect/imagination, conscientiousness, and future time perspective were associated with believing in unlimited-resource theory. On the other hand, higher past negative and present fatalism time perspectives and vulnerable narcissism were related to limited-resource theory. The extent of personality basis of the willpower theories, and whether their influence on self-regulation can be assigned to individual differences, are discussed.

59Th Conference of Experimental Psychologists, Dresden, Germany

March, 2017

Łowicki, P. (2017). Is cleanliness really next to godliness? On the impact of physical cleansing on cognitive availability of religious and moral words. 59Th Conference of Experimental Psychologists, Dresden, Germany.

Background. Purifying rituals have been an inevitable part of various religious practices for thousands of years. Only recently though the potential impact of physical cleanliness on psychological functioning has been studied. Researchers interested in embodied aspects of human cognition found that cleanliness can in fact promote human’s religiosity and morality (Preston & Ritter, 2012; Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006). Methods. The experimental research conducted among Polish university students (N=40) examined the influence of physical cleansing on cognitive availability of religious and moral words. First, participants were asked to clean their hands with wet hand wipes (experimental group, n=20) or to simply rub their hands in the similar way (control group, n=20). Then, all individuals took part in a simple cognitive task on tablet computer. The task required indicating if the word visible on the tablet was written correctly or not. Three types of words were included: religious (e.g. saint), moral (e.g. punish) and neutral (e.g. picture). Afterwards, participants filled out some questionnaires assessing their personal attitude towards religion. Results. It was found that there were no significant differences in the reaction time or the number of correct answers between experimental and control condition. However, it was found that within the experimental group the reaction time to all kinds of words was positively correlated with the level of belief in God/Higher Power. Similar connection was not observed for the control group. The study revealed also that individuals identifying themselves with certain religion, regardless of the experimental manipulation, needed more time to react to religious and moral content. These participants made also significantly more mistakes with religious words than participants without any religious affiliation. Conclusion. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the act of physical cleansing can have direct impact on one’s religiosity or morality. On the contrary, the study shows that it is rather the declared religious affiliation that may influence our cognitive processing of such specific content. With regards to the performed correlation analysis, it seems that the potential relationship of cleanliness and religiosity (if existent at all) may be more subtle than it has been argued so far.

Maciantowicz, O. (2017). Narcissistic cognition in anger: relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, anger, intelligence and executive control. 59Th Conference of Experimental Psychologists, Dresden, Germany.

In reference to the latest research on cognitive regulation of anger and hostility, this paper attempts to demonstrate the specificity of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in the context of cognitive regulation of aggression exploring relationships between human cognitive resources, emotional state of anger and traits of narcissism. Two studies among Polish adults were conducted to explore above relationships. First study (N=275) showed that vulnerable narcissism is connected with lower performance in fluid intelligence test (Cattell’s test). Further analysis showed that this relation is fully mediated by higher self-reported state of anger. Second study’s (N=72) aim was to explore this relation focusing of executive control (antisaccade tasks). Not only individuals higher on vulnerable narcissism were exhibiting greater anger and lower executive control capacity, but level of executive control turned out to moderate anger-vulnerable narcissism relationship. Vulnerable narcissism predicts anger only in individuals with lower and medium executive control resources. High level of executive control inhibits vulnerable narcissism tendency toward anger. These findings might be crucial for understanding narcissistic aggression and also for differentiation of two types of narcissistic personality in that matter.

Witowska, J. (2017). Is there a relationship between perceiving of time and cognitive functioning? The association between time perspective, cognitive control and intelligence. 59Th Conference of Experimental Psychologists, Dresden, Germany.

In this talk will be presented the relationships between time perspectives and cognitive abilities. Time perspective is the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories. In according to time perspective theory there are five basic time perspectives: Past Negative, Past Positive, Present Hedonism, Present Fatalism, Future and an adaptive time perspective profile calling Balanced Time Perspective. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. In the current study cognitive abilities refers to cognitive control and fluid intelligence. Cognitive control were assessed with tasks that require deliberate inhibition of prepotent, automatic responses (Antisaccade and Go/no go) and fluid intelligence were measured with two tests (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test). A total of 233 subjects took part in the study. The results indicate relationships between variables. Past Negative and Present Fatalism are negatively associated with specific cognitive abilities (Past Negative with Cattell’s test and Anisaccade task; Present Fatalism with both measures of intelligence and both tasks of cognitive control). However, Balanced Time Perspective is positively connected with scores in intelligence tests and one cognitive control task. The obtained results suggest that TPs may play a significant role in cognitive tests performance and cognitive functioning.

International Convention of Psychological Science, Vienna, Austria

March, 2017

Maciantowicz, M., Malesza, M., Witowska, J., Łowicki, P. (2017). Dark side of impulsivity — Associations between the Dark Triad, self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (poster). International Convention of Psychological Science, Vienna, Austria.

Łowicki, P., Maciantowicz, O., Malesza, M., Witowska J. (2017). Antisocial personality traits and religiosity (poster). International Convention of Psychological Science, Vienna, Austria.

3rd International Conference on Time Perspective, Copenhagen, Danemark

August 2016

Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Zajenkowski, M. Time to work: Pacing Styles, Time Perspectives and Personality Traits (poster)

In the present study, we examined the association between time perspective (TP) and a recently developed construct of pacing styles. Both concepts refer to time, but the former concerns the tendency to concentrate on past, present or future (time perspectives), while the latter describes behavioral preferences regarding the distribution of effort over time in working toward deadlines (pacing styles). Our results indicate that two of three pacing styles are associated with different personality traits and TPs. Deadline pacing style (complete the bulk of the work in a relatively short period of time just before the deadline) was positively associated with present hedonistic orientation and openness to experience. Regression analysis showed that, after controlling for openness to experience, present hedonistic orientation explained more variance in deadline pacing style than personality. The second analysis was performed for steady pacing style (engage in a constant work pace and spread out task activities evenly over time) together with conscientiousness and future time orientation. As in the former case, future time perspective accounted for an additional variance in steady pacing style, beyond personality trait. Finally, both considered pacing styles were also associated with Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective. Our results have shown that one’s time perspective might be important in working styles, because it influences on preferences to tasks execution.

Witowska, J., Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M. The relationship between vulnerable and  grandiose narcissism, time perspective, personality and satisfaction with life

Previous investigations have shown that there are significant differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. To date, however, no studies have explored how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists partition their personal experiences into time-bound categories. In the present study associations between the two types of narcissism, time perspective (TP), personality and satisfaction with life were examined. The results indicated that the two forms of narcissism are associated with different TP profiles. Specifically, grandiose narcissists exhibited high present hedonistic orientation. This result was significant after controlling for extraversion, and was consistent with grandiose narcissists’ tendency toward risk-taking, impulsive behavior, and little consideration for future consequences. Vulnerable narcissists showed higher levels of past negative, present fatalistic and present hedonistic TPs. However, when the two types of narcissism have been analyzed together, only grandiose narcissism predicted hedonistic orientation. Finally, vulnerable narcissism was positively correlated with Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective, meaning that vulnerable narcissists manifest less balanced TP. Additional analysis revealed that past negative orientation of vulnerable narcissism might be a factor explaining their low satisfaction with life.

Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Uncovering the complex associations between Time Perspectives and Aggression

The aim of this study was to empirically verify a series of hypotheses on the role of time perspective (TP) in predicting aggression, formulated on the basis of TP Theory and General Aggression Model. Three hundred participants completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Analysis revealed numerous significant relationships between TP dimensions and aggression. In particular, individuals scoring high on Past Negative, Present Fatalistic, and Present Hedonistic were more prone to aggressive feelings, and, in consequence, aggressive behavior. These relationships were, however, strongly attenuated in individuals with high levels of two remaining TPs – Past Positive and Future. The results provide evidence that the temporal perspective people use to structure their experience into time horizons may play a significant role in the intensity and dynamics of aggression. We discuss our results from the perspectives of psychological theories of aggression and TP.

17th Annual Conference of International Society for Intelligence Research (Intelligence), St. Petersburg,Russia

July 2016

Zajenkowski, M., Maciantowicz, O., Malesza, M., Witowska, J. Why Does Intelligence Reduce Anger? An Experimental Approach

Previous research has shown that intelligence negatively correlates with trait anger, and that cognitive control might be a factor underlying this relationship. However, the mechanism of this relationship remained unclear. The aim of the present studies was deeper understanding of the processes of cognitive ability involved in the regulation of anger. It has been found previously that low trait-anger individuals recruit limited-capacity cognitive control resources following the activation of hostile thoughts. Additionally, other studies revealed that intellectual processes may also reduce the level of the experienced affect related to anger, e.g., high cognitive control decreases the intensity of induced anger. In study 1 (n=150) the relationship between intelligence, trait anger and cognitive control task (flanker test) were examined. In study 2 (n=181), the role of fluid intelligence in the inhibition of activated hostile thoughts by individuals differing in trait anger has been explored. It was expected that cognitive ability would moderate the relationship between trait anger and proneness to negative evaluation of neutral words primed by hostile stimuli. In study 3 (n=170), the influence of intelligence on induced angry mood was examined. Specifically, participants were randomly divided into two groups and underwent an anger, or neutral emotion induction, respectively. The result of study 1 indicated that higher anger was associated with poorer cognitive control. However, this relationship was attenuated when cognitive ability was added to the model. Study 2 revealed that intelligence interacted with trait anger in the way that the tendency to negatively evaluate words primed by hostile stimuli by high trait anger individuals was found only at the low level of intelligence. Finally, the results of study 3 have shown that intelligence predicted emotional responses such that participants with lower cognitive ability control reported larger increases in anger following the anger induction. The present project is the first attempt to experimentally examine the nature of the intelligence – anger relationship. We found that intelligent individuals are more likely to recruit their cognitive control capacity to inhibit hostile thoughts and angry mood.

Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Malesza, M.,  Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Uncovering a Complex Interplay Between Intelligence and Time Perspective: Mediating Role of Stress (poster)

In the study we examine the complex relationships between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories) and cognitive ability. Additionally, we consider cognitive, emotional and motivational mediators of this association measured before and after the completion of the intelligence test. More specifically, the study explored the potential mediating role of three test-related stress states in the relationship between fluid intelligence and time perspective before and after the completion of the intelligence test. A total of 306 subjects took part in the study. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Stress states related to cognitive performance were measured with the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire. It measures three factors: task engagement, distress and worry, and was administered twice: just before and immediately after Raven’s test. Past Negative was positively correlated with the pre- and post-levels of distress and worry; high Present Fatalistic individuals showed lower post-task engagement and stronger post-task worry. Additionally, participants more focused on Past Positive perspective exhibited lower distress after completing the task. Individuals scoring high on Present Hedonistic had a tendency to worry before the task. Future-oriented people tended to score higher on post-task engagement. The Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective was negatively correlated with engagement (preand post-task), and positively correlated with distress (both measurements) as well as with worry (only post-task). These results indicate that greater distance from balanced perspective leads to higher stress during cognitive testing. The study revealed that Present Fatalism and Past Negative perspectives were associated with higher stress related to intelligence-test performance, while Balanced time perspective reduced this stress. These results suggest that the stress accompanying individuals with high Past Negative, high Present Fatalistic and poorly balanced TPs was partially a response to the test performance. The obtained results suggest that TP may play a significant role in acquiring abilities (crystallized intelligence), but also that it probably influences test performance.

Malesza, M., Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Time to be Smart – Associations Between Intelligence and Time Perspective (poster)

Both intelligence and time perspective have been shown to correlate with a variety of psychological variables, such as health, delay of gratification, aggression, educational outcomes, and job performance. These similarities prompt the question of whether and how these seemingly distinct constructs are related. In the present studies we examine the relationships between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories) and various aspects of intelligence (e.g., fluid, verbal, general). Moreover, subjectively assessed intelligence as a mediating variable has been assessed. A total of 238 subjects took part in the study. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Verbal intelligence was assessed with a test of verbal comprehension designed to measure crystallized abilities. In this test, participants are asked to find a synonym for a target word among four different words. Subjectively assessed intelligence was assessed by having participants first read the general characteristic of intelligence taken from a public statement known as «Mainstream Science on Intelligence» issued by a group of 52 academic researchers in fields associated with intelligence. Next, participants assessed their own intelligence using a table with one row and 25 columns. Past Negative and Present Fatalistic perspectives correlated negatively with fluid and verbal intelligences. Present Hedonism was negatively, and Future time perspective positively, associated with verbal intelligence. Subjectively assessed intelligence mediated the relationship between Present Fatalism and intelligence. Furthermore, the results revealed that subjectively assessed intelligence partially mediated the relationship between Present Fatalism and intelligence. Finally, Balanced time perspective positively correlated with fluid intelligence. The current study has revealed that time perspectives are associated with various aspects of intellectual abilities. Time perspectives can be analyzed both as a process emerging from intellectual abilities, as well as a set of dispositions that allow individuals to effectively regulate their own psychological states (e.g., levels of stress, motivation) in order to optimize their cognitive performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to empirically analyze associations between time perspectives and intelligence, as well as to provide some insight into mechanism of these relationships. Such analyses allow to better understand the nature of intelligence by broadening its nomological network and to identify some novel mechanisms influencing the effectiveness of cognitive processing.

Witowska, J., Malesza, M., Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. (2016). Cognitive Control, Fluid Intelligence and Balanced Time Perspective (poster)

Numerous studies established that a balanced time perspective (BTP) is associated with many positive outcomes. It is defined as an ability to switch between perspectives according to the situational demands. In the present study we examined the relationship between BTP, cognitive control and intelligence. We expected that there will be a positive association between fluid intelligence, balanced time perspective and cognitive control. Moreover, we expected also that the association between BTP and cognitive control will be mediated by fluid intelligence. A total of 232 subjects participated in the study (122 female, 110 male). The mean age was 23.55 (SD=3.70) with a range of 18–39 years. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Cognitive control was measured by Antisaccade task and Go/no-go task. Balanced time perspective was positively correlated witch fluid intelligence and cognitive control measures, which may mean that certain cognitive resources, are required to obtain balance in use of different time perspectives in a different life situations. Moreover, fluid intelligence mediated the relationship between BTP and cognitive control. These results confirm our hypothesis and show that BTP indeed has a common adaptive meaning with fluid intelligence and cognitive control. The aim of the present study was to empirically analyze associations between adaptive meaning of BTP and its relation with fluid intelligence and cognitive control, as well as to provide some insights into mechanism of these relationships. The obtained results suggest that fluid intelligence and cognitive control may play together a significant role in development of flexible switching between different time perspectives.

BACK TO HOMEPAGE View all posts
INTELLIGENCE COGNITION
EMOTION LAB

Uniwersytet Warszawski
Wydział Psychologii
ul. Stawki 5/7
00-183 Warszawa
e-mail. ice.lab.uw@gmail.com