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Conferences

We invite you to explore our talks and posters. Here you can find abstracts of our latest conference papers. 

3rd International Conference on Time Perspective, Copenhagen, Danemark

August 2016

Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Zajenkowski, M. Time to work: Pacing Styles, Time Perspectives and Personality Traits (poster)

In the present study, we examined the association between time perspective (TP) and a recently developed construct of pacing styles. Both concepts refer to time, but the former concerns the tendency to concentrate on past, present or future (time perspectives), while the latter describes behavioral preferences regarding the distribution of effort over time in working toward deadlines (pacing styles). Our results indicate that two of three pacing styles are associated with different personality traits and TPs. Deadline pacing style (complete the bulk of the work in a relatively short period of time just before the deadline) was positively associated with present hedonistic orientation and openness to experience. Regression analysis showed that, after controlling for openness to experience, present hedonistic orientation explained more variance in deadline pacing style than personality. The second analysis was performed for steady pacing style (engage in a constant work pace and spread out task activities evenly over time) together with conscientiousness and future time orientation. As in the former case, future time perspective accounted for an additional variance in steady pacing style, beyond personality trait. Finally, both considered pacing styles were also associated with Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective. Our results have shown that one’s time perspective might be important in working styles, because it influences on preferences to tasks execution.

Witowska, J., Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M. The relationship between vulnerable and  grandiose narcissism, time perspective, personality and satisfaction with life

Previous investigations have shown that there are significant differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. To date, however, no studies have explored how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists partition their personal experiences into time-bound categories. In the present study associations between the two types of narcissism, time perspective (TP), personality and satisfaction with life were examined. The results indicated that the two forms of narcissism are associated with different TP profiles. Specifically, grandiose narcissists exhibited high present hedonistic orientation. This result was significant after controlling for extraversion, and was consistent with grandiose narcissists’ tendency toward risk-taking, impulsive behavior, and little consideration for future consequences. Vulnerable narcissists showed higher levels of past negative, present fatalistic and present hedonistic TPs. However, when the two types of narcissism have been analyzed together, only grandiose narcissism predicted hedonistic orientation. Finally, vulnerable narcissism was positively correlated with Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective, meaning that vulnerable narcissists manifest less balanced TP. Additional analysis revealed that past negative orientation of vulnerable narcissism might be a factor explaining their low satisfaction with life.

Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Uncovering the complex associations between Time Perspectives and Aggression

The aim of this study was to empirically verify a series of hypotheses on the role of time perspective (TP) in predicting aggression, formulated on the basis of TP Theory and General Aggression Model. Three hundred participants completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Analysis revealed numerous significant relationships between TP dimensions and aggression. In particular, individuals scoring high on Past Negative, Present Fatalistic, and Present Hedonistic were more prone to aggressive feelings, and, in consequence, aggressive behavior. These relationships were, however, strongly attenuated in individuals with high levels of two remaining TPs – Past Positive and Future. The results provide evidence that the temporal perspective people use to structure their experience into time horizons may play a significant role in the intensity and dynamics of aggression. We discuss our results from the perspectives of psychological theories of aggression and TP.

17th Annual Conference of International Society for Intelligence Research (Intelligence), St. Petersburg,Russia

July 2016

Zajenkowski, M., Maciantowicz, O., Malesza, M., Witowska, J. Why Does Intelligence Reduce Anger? An Experimental Approach

Previous research has shown that intelligence negatively correlates with trait anger, and that cognitive control might be a factor underlying this relationship. However, the mechanism of this relationship remained unclear. The aim of the present studies was deeper understanding of the processes of cognitive ability involved in the regulation of anger. It has been found previously that low trait-anger individuals recruit limited-capacity cognitive control resources following the activation of hostile thoughts. Additionally, other studies revealed that intellectual processes may also reduce the level of the experienced affect related to anger, e.g., high cognitive control decreases the intensity of induced anger. In study 1 (n=150) the relationship between intelligence, trait anger and cognitive control task (flanker test) were examined. In study 2 (n=181), the role of fluid intelligence in the inhibition of activated hostile thoughts by individuals differing in trait anger has been explored. It was expected that cognitive ability would moderate the relationship between trait anger and proneness to negative evaluation of neutral words primed by hostile stimuli. In study 3 (n=170), the influence of intelligence on induced angry mood was examined. Specifically, participants were randomly divided into two groups and underwent an anger, or neutral emotion induction, respectively. The result of study 1 indicated that higher anger was associated with poorer cognitive control. However, this relationship was attenuated when cognitive ability was added to the model. Study 2 revealed that intelligence interacted with trait anger in the way that the tendency to negatively evaluate words primed by hostile stimuli by high trait anger individuals was found only at the low level of intelligence. Finally, the results of study 3 have shown that intelligence predicted emotional responses such that participants with lower cognitive ability control reported larger increases in anger following the anger induction. The present project is the first attempt to experimentally examine the nature of the intelligence – anger relationship. We found that intelligent individuals are more likely to recruit their cognitive control capacity to inhibit hostile thoughts and angry mood.

Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Malesza, M.,  Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Uncovering a Complex Interplay Between Intelligence and Time Perspective: Mediating Role of Stress (poster)

In the study we examine the complex relationships between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories) and cognitive ability. Additionally, we consider cognitive, emotional and motivational mediators of this association measured before and after the completion of the intelligence test. More specifically, the study explored the potential mediating role of three test-related stress states in the relationship between fluid intelligence and time perspective before and after the completion of the intelligence test. A total of 306 subjects took part in the study. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Stress states related to cognitive performance were measured with the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire. It measures three factors: task engagement, distress and worry, and was administered twice: just before and immediately after Raven’s test. Past Negative was positively correlated with the pre- and post-levels of distress and worry; high Present Fatalistic individuals showed lower post-task engagement and stronger post-task worry. Additionally, participants more focused on Past Positive perspective exhibited lower distress after completing the task. Individuals scoring high on Present Hedonistic had a tendency to worry before the task. Future-oriented people tended to score higher on post-task engagement. The Deviation from Balanced Time Perspective was negatively correlated with engagement (preand post-task), and positively correlated with distress (both measurements) as well as with worry (only post-task). These results indicate that greater distance from balanced perspective leads to higher stress during cognitive testing. The study revealed that Present Fatalism and Past Negative perspectives were associated with higher stress related to intelligence-test performance, while Balanced time perspective reduced this stress. These results suggest that the stress accompanying individuals with high Past Negative, high Present Fatalistic and poorly balanced TPs was partially a response to the test performance. The obtained results suggest that TP may play a significant role in acquiring abilities (crystallized intelligence), but also that it probably influences test performance.

Malesza, M., Maciantowicz, O., Witowska, J., Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. Time to be Smart – Associations Between Intelligence and Time Perspective (poster)

Both intelligence and time perspective have been shown to correlate with a variety of psychological variables, such as health, delay of gratification, aggression, educational outcomes, and job performance. These similarities prompt the question of whether and how these seemingly distinct constructs are related. In the present studies we examine the relationships between time perspective (the characteristic way in which an individual partitions the flow of personal experiences into time-bound categories) and various aspects of intelligence (e.g., fluid, verbal, general). Moreover, subjectively assessed intelligence as a mediating variable has been assessed. A total of 238 subjects took part in the study. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Verbal intelligence was assessed with a test of verbal comprehension designed to measure crystallized abilities. In this test, participants are asked to find a synonym for a target word among four different words. Subjectively assessed intelligence was assessed by having participants first read the general characteristic of intelligence taken from a public statement known as «Mainstream Science on Intelligence» issued by a group of 52 academic researchers in fields associated with intelligence. Next, participants assessed their own intelligence using a table with one row and 25 columns. Past Negative and Present Fatalistic perspectives correlated negatively with fluid and verbal intelligences. Present Hedonism was negatively, and Future time perspective positively, associated with verbal intelligence. Subjectively assessed intelligence mediated the relationship between Present Fatalism and intelligence. Furthermore, the results revealed that subjectively assessed intelligence partially mediated the relationship between Present Fatalism and intelligence. Finally, Balanced time perspective positively correlated with fluid intelligence. The current study has revealed that time perspectives are associated with various aspects of intellectual abilities. Time perspectives can be analyzed both as a process emerging from intellectual abilities, as well as a set of dispositions that allow individuals to effectively regulate their own psychological states (e.g., levels of stress, motivation) in order to optimize their cognitive performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to empirically analyze associations between time perspectives and intelligence, as well as to provide some insight into mechanism of these relationships. Such analyses allow to better understand the nature of intelligence by broadening its nomological network and to identify some novel mechanisms influencing the effectiveness of cognitive processing.

Witowska, J., Malesza, M., Maciantowicz, O., Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M. (2016). Cognitive Control, Fluid Intelligence and Balanced Time Perspective (poster)

Numerous studies established that a balanced time perspective (BTP) is associated with many positive outcomes. It is defined as an ability to switch between perspectives according to the situational demands. In the present study we examined the relationship between BTP, cognitive control and intelligence. We expected that there will be a positive association between fluid intelligence, balanced time perspective and cognitive control. Moreover, we expected also that the association between BTP and cognitive control will be mediated by fluid intelligence. A total of 232 subjects participated in the study (122 female, 110 male). The mean age was 23.55 (SD=3.70) with a range of 18–39 years. Time perspective was assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Fluid intelligence was measured with Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices and Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Cognitive control was measured by Antisaccade task and Go/no-go task. Balanced time perspective was positively correlated witch fluid intelligence and cognitive control measures, which may mean that certain cognitive resources, are required to obtain balance in use of different time perspectives in a different life situations. Moreover, fluid intelligence mediated the relationship between BTP and cognitive control. These results confirm our hypothesis and show that BTP indeed has a common adaptive meaning with fluid intelligence and cognitive control. The aim of the present study was to empirically analyze associations between adaptive meaning of BTP and its relation with fluid intelligence and cognitive control, as well as to provide some insights into mechanism of these relationships. The obtained results suggest that fluid intelligence and cognitive control may play together a significant role in development of flexible switching between different time perspectives.

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